Literaturliste "Aethina tumida"

Ambrose J.T., Stanghellini M.S., Hopkins D.I., (2000) A scientific note on the threat of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida Murray) to bumble bee (Bombus spp.) colonies in the United States, Apidologie 31, 455-456.

Ambrose J.T., Stanghellini M.S., Hopkins D.I., (2000) A scientific note on the threat of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida Murray) to bumble bees (Bombus spp.) colonies in the United States, Apidologie 31, 455-456. After keeping 4 B. impatiens colonies (100-200 adult bees) in quarantine for 28 d, 3 of them were experimentally infested with 20 A. tumida adults. When sacrificed 14, 17 or 24 d later, a colony contained 483-3623 beetle larvae, 300-1000 pupae and 200-500 new adult beetles. No beetles were found in a control colony. The infested colonies had fewer live adult bees, more dead adults, and greater comb damage than in the control colony.

Baxter J.R., Elzen P.J., Westervelt D., Causey D., Randall C., Eischen F.A., Wilson W.T., (1999) Control of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida in package bees, Am Bee J 139, 792-793. Since its confirmed discovery in Florida in June 1998, the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) has spread to honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera) throughout the eastern U.S. And has been reported from several midwestern states. While it is most likely that the nature of beekeeping to migrate around the U.S. Is mainly responsible for this spread, questions have arisen in the bee industry as to the control of the small hive beetle in the shipment of package bees from infested areas. In order to answer these questions, we undertook two large studies in the southeastern U.S. Designed to test beetle control strategies in packages.

Eischen F.A., Westervelt D., Baxter J., (1999) Small hive beetles in the honey house!, Am Bee J 139, 934-935. In hindsight we should have seen it coming. This past summer small hive beetles created honey house problems for several Florida beekeepers, We all knew that beetles were in the area and that they could destroy, small colonies by overwhelming them, sometimes by sheer weight of numbers. Even large colonies appeared vulnerable, if they were disturbed, as in a colony inspection or honey palling But beekeepers were actively controlling these pests through permethrin ground drenches in the apiary and with coumaphos traps in the colony, Things sort of seemed under control. Then, along came a nice honey flow and things got a little out of control.

Eischen F.A., Westervelt D., Randall C., (1999) Does the small hive beetle have alternate food sources ?, Am Bee J 139, 125. jdc

Ellis J.D., (2002) Food for thought: How diet affects small hive beetles, Am Bee J 142, 515-517.

Ellis J.D., Delaplane K.S., Hepburn R., Elzen P.J., (2002) Controlling small hive beetles (Aethina tumida Murray) in honey bee (Apis mellifera) colonies using a modified hive entrance, Am Bee J 142, 288-290. This study was designed to test whether colony invasion by adult small hive beetles can be reduced by replacing the regular entrance of a hive with a 3/4-inch (2-cm) PVC pipe located 3-4 inches (7.6-10.2 cm) above the bottom board. Colonies with pipe entrances had significantly fewer adult beetles (46.9 beetles / colony) than open colonies (107.7 beetles / colony). Pipe entrances did not significantly affect the amount of seated brood in a colony nor the temperature inside colonies. However, brood significantly affected temperature inside colonies and there was a tendency for reduced brood in colonies with pipes; temperature increased as the amount of brood in a colony increased. Brood did not affect the number of adult beetles present in colonies. This experiment shows that modifying a colony's entrance may help control small hive beetles, but more work is needed to offset unwanted effects of reduced colony entrances.

Ellis J.D., Delaplane K.S., Hood W.M., (2002) Small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) weight, gross biometry, and sex proportion at three locations in the southeastern United States, Am Bee J 142, 520-522. This study was designed to appraise differences in sex proportion and mean body width, length, and weight between sexes of small hive beetles (SHB) from Clemson, SC; Wadmalaw Island, SC; and Richmond Hills, GA. Adult female beetles were significantly longer than males within each location. Overall means did not differ for width between sexes. Due to small variation in width between sexes, width may be an important factor when designing exclusion or trapping devices for SHB. Overall, female beetles weighed significantly more than males. There tended to be more females than males at each location.

Ellis J.D., Neumann P., Hepburn R., Elzen P.J. , (2002) Longevity and reproductive success of Aethina tumida (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) fed different natural diets, J Econ Entomol 95, 902-907. 603GF The longevity and reproductive success of newly emerged, unfed adult Aethina tumida Murray assigned different diets (control = unfed; honey-pollen; honey; pollen; empty brood comb; bee brood; fresh Kei apples; and rotten Kei apples) were determined. Longevity in honey-fed small hive beetle adults (average maximum: 167 d) was significantly higher than on other diets. Small hive beetles fed empty brood comb lived significantly longer (average maximum: 49.8 d) than unfed beetles (average maximum: 9.6 d). Small hive beetle offspring were produced on honey-pollen, pollen, bee brood, fresh Kei apples, and rotten Kei apples but not on honey alone, empty brood comb, or in control treatments. The highest reproductive success occurred in pollen fed adults (1773.8 +/- 294.4 larvae per three mating pairs of adults). The data also show that A. tumida can reproduce on fruits alone, indicating that they are facultative parasites. The pupation success and sex ratio of small hive beetle offspring were also analyzed. Larvae fed pollen, honey-pollen, or brood had significantly higher pupation success rates of 0.64,0.73, and 0.65 respectively than on the other diets. Sex ratios of emerging adults fed diets of pollen or brood as larvae were significantly skewed toward females. Because small hive beetle longevity and overall reproductive success was highest on foodstuffs located in honey bee colonies, A. tumida are efficient at causing large-scale damage to colonies of honey bees resulting in economic injury for the beekeeper. Practical considerations for the control of A. tumida are briefly discussed.

Elzen P.J., Baxter J.R., Neumann P., Solbrig A., Pirk C., Hepburn H.R., Westervelt D., Randall C., (2001) Behaviour of African and European subspecies of Apis mellifera toward the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, J Apic Res 40, 40-41.

Elzen P.J., Baxter J.R., Westervelt D., Randall C., Cutts L., Wilson W.T., Eischen F.A., Delaplane K.S., Hopkins D.I., (1999) Status of the small hive beetle in the USA - Now in four staates, what's next ?, Bee Culture 127, 28-29. jdc

Elzen P.J., Baxter J.R., Westervelt D., Randall C., Delaplane K.S., Cutts L., Wilson W.T., (1999) Field control and biology studies of a new pest species, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae), attacking European honey bees in the Western Hemisphere, Apidologie 30, 361-366. The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray, is a nitidulid species newly recorded attacking honey bees in the Western Hemisphere. We initiated field and laboratory tests on the control and biology of this new pest. Very high mortality of adult and larval A. Tumida in Florida and Georgia hives resulted from field tests using 10 % coumaphos in plastic strips in trapping devices on the hive bottom: as high as 90.2 % beetle mortality occurred in hives in Florida. Adult beetles were found in the laboratory to feed on honey bee eggs, completely consuming all eggs, even in the presence of honey and pollen. Odors from hive products plus adult bees were found to be significantly attractive to flying adult beetles, as evidenced in baited trap studies. Hive products alone or bees alone were not attractive to adult A. Tumida. (C) Inra/DIB/AGIB/Elsevier, Paris.

Evans J.D., Pettis J.S., Shimanuki H., (2000) Mitochondrial DNA relationships in an emergent pest of honey bees: Aethina tumida (Coleoptera : Nitidulidae) from the United States and Africa, Annals of the Entomological Society of America 93, 415-420. The hive beetle Aethina tumida Murray is a new pest of honey bee colonies in North America. Specimens of A. Tunida were collected throughout its current range in the southeastern United States, and from several sites in South Africa. A 1018-bp section of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene was amplified and sequenced in 26 beetles collected from Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina, and in 14 beetles collected from seven sites in South Africa. Mitochondrial DNA variation between all A. Tumida samples was <0.8%, which was still considered within the range expected for a single species. The U.S. Samples showed two distinct haplotypes, differing by 6 bp (0.6%). Both haplotypes were found across and within several geographic regions, a result consistent with a single introduction into the United States. However, a broad survey of 151 beetles from their new range revealed significant heterogeneity in haplotype frequencies, perhaps resulting from multiple introductions. Although the data do not allow a precise estimate of the point from which A. Tumida were accidentally exported from Africa, the close genetic similarity between beetles from the United States and South Africa indicates that studies conducted on beetle physiology, parasites, and pathogens in South Africa will have a direct bearing on populations now found in the United States.

Glinski Z., Kostro K., Klimek E., (2001) Aethina tumida - parasite and scavenger of the honeybee, MEDYCYNA WETERYNARYJNA 57, 315-317. The small hive beetle Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) is a new pest which has attacked honeybees (Apis mellifera) in the USA since 1998, A. tumida is a native of tropical and subtropical Africa where it attacks weakened colonies and A. m, scutellata and A. m, capensis storage combs. The beetles invade bee colonies and lay eggs inside them. Both larvae and adults feed on brood, pollen, wax, honey, and damage both the brood and honeycomb. When small hive beetle infestations are heavy and even if the colony is strong, queens will stop laying eggs and the bees often leave the hive. Mature larvae enter soil to pupate, The duration from egg to adult is about 38-81 days. Ensuring sanitary conditions in the hives and bee colony is the first line of defence against the small hive beetle. Coumaphos bee strips have been approved for use in hives in order to control the A. tumida, Fumigation of stored combs with p-dichlorobenzene is recommended and provides sufficient control.

Glinski Z., Kostro K., Klimek E., (2001) Aethina tumida pasozyt pszczoly miodnej i jej produktów, Medycyna Weterynaryjna 57, 315-317.

Hood W.M., (2000) Overview of the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, in North America, Bee World 81, 129-137. How, when, and where the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, first entered North America without warning remains a mystery The hive pest has established itself in a new region of the world and has already left its mark on US beekeeping.

Hopkins D.I., Nalepa C.A., Hackney G.D., Kidd K.A., (1999) Studies of the small hive beetle Aethina tumida in North Carolina, Am Bee J 139, 536. jdc

Kochansky J., Wilzer K., Feldlaufer M., (2001) Comparison of the transfer of coumaphos from beeswax into syrup and honey, Apidologie 32, 119-125. The organophosphate insecticide coumaphos has recently received emergency approval in the United States for control of fluvalinate-resistant Varroa destructor and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray. We investigated the transfer of coumaphos from wax into syrup and honey, using adsorption of coumaphos from diluted syrup or honey onto a solid-phase extraction cartridge, elution, and subsequent analysis. Coumaphos in syrup was quantitated using HPLC with UV detection, and we found that coumaphos migrates from wax into syrup, with low concentrations increasing over a few months. Concentrations reached 200-300 ppb in 100 g of syrup in contact with 10 g of wax containing 1000 ppm of coumaphos; contact with wax containing 100 and 10 ppm led to lower amounts. Impurities made HPLC determination of coumaphos in honey impossible, but the solid phase extract could be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Concentrations in honey were similar to those in syrup, reaching 430 ppb after 26 weeks at 1000 ppm in wax.

Mostafa A.M., Williams R.N., (2002) New record of the small hive beetle in Egypt and notes on its distribution and control, Bee World 83, 99-108. 608RJ The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) is a new threat to beekeepers and is spreading from its original location in South Africa. It is now present in the USA and this article reports its first incidence in Egypt.

Munn P., (1999) The small hive beetle, Bee World 80, 204-206. Jdc

Neumann P., Pirk C.W.W., Hepburn H.R., Solbrig A.J., Ratnieks F.L.W., Elzen P.J., Baxter J.R., (2001) Social encapsulation of beetle parasites by Cape honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN 88, 214-216. Worker honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis) encapsulate the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida), a nest parasite, in propolis (tree resin collected by the bees). The encapsulation process lasts 1-4 days and the bees have a sophisticated guarding strategy for limiting the escape of beetles during encapsulation. Some encapsulated beetles died (4.9%) and a few escaped (1.6%). Encapsulation has probably evolved because the small hive beetle cannot easily be killed by the bees due to its hard exoskeleton and defensive behaviour.

Neumann P., Pirk C.W.W., Hepburn H.R., Solbrig A.J., Ratnieks F.L.W., Elzen P.J., Baxter J.R., (2001) Social encapsulation of beetle parasites by Cape honeybee colonies (Apis mellifera capensis Esch.) (vol 88, pg 214, 2001), NATURWISSENSCHAFTEN 88, 400-400.

Neumann P., Pirk C.W.W., Hepburn R., Elzen P.J., Baxter J.R., (2001) Laboratory rearing of small hive beetles Aethina tumida (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae), J Apic Res 40, 111-112. 598PW

Park A.L., Pettis J.S., Caron D.M., (2002) Use of household products in the control of small hive beetle larvae and salvage of treated combs, Am Bee J 142, 439-442. We tested the effects of several common household products on small hive beetle larval mortality and then observed honey bee acceptance of combs treated with these products. Bleach was most effective and fast-acting, killing 100% of tested larvae within 4 hours of treatment. Detergent was also effective and killed around 85% of treated larvae after 24 hours. Oil, oil and water, and vinegar were less effective. Combs treated with water and vinegar were acceptable to bees after 1 hour, while bleach and detergent-treated combs remained repellent for at least 24 hours. We propose that bleach is a fast-acting and safe product suitable for controlling small hive beetle larvae in honey, houses and for use in the salvage of combs infested with larvae.

Ritter W., (1999) Kleiner Bienenbeutenkäfer - ein weiterer Parasit gefährdet die Bienen, Allg Dtsch Imkerztg 33, 11. jdc

Ritter W., (2002) Bienenbeutenkäfer - blinde Passagiere aus Übersee ?, Dtsch Bienen J 10, 16. jdc

Sanford M.T., (1998) Aethina tumida - A new beehive pest in the U.S., Bee Culture 126, 24-26. Jdc

Stanghellini M.S., Ambrose J.T., Hopkins D.I., (2000) Bumble bee colonies as potential alternative hosts for the small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray), Am Bee J 140, 71-75. Three bumble bee (Bombus impatiens Cresson) colonies, each containing 100-200 adult bees and enclosed in separate containment chambers, were artificially infested with 20 small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) adults. A fourth colony was not infested and served as a control. Beetle-infested and control colonies were sacrificed on three separate days to evaluate colony status and beetle population over time. At the termination of the study, between 1,900 and 4,200 small hive beetle larvae, pupae, and new adults were recovered from each of the colonies to which adult beetles were introduced, No adult, pupal, or larval beetles were found in the control colony when sacrificed, In addition, beetle-infested colonies had fewer live adult bees, more dead bees (and a greater proportion of which were no longer intact), and more comb damage than did the control colony. Adult beetles were successfully reared from adult to adult, thus demonstrating their ability to complete an entire lifecycle in association with Bombus colonies. The effects of beetle infestation on a nest scavenger, the Indian meal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hubner)], are also described.

Tribe G.D., (2001) Small hive beetle - Thoughts from South Africa, Bee Culture 129, 7-9. Jdc

VARGAS-SARMIENTO, M.M., Essential oil treatments to control Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman 2000 (formely Varroa jacobsoni Oudemans 1904) (Mesostigmata: Varroidae) , (2000) 1-70. cm 171

Wenning C.J., (2001) Spread and threat of the small hive beetle, Am Bee J 141, 640-643. When the Small Hive Beetle was discovered in Florida during May 1998, it was perceived to be a major threat to American beekeeping. Since then the insect has made its way to 17 states in the U.S. and into the hives of thousands of beekeepers. How did the Small Hive Beetle get so widely and so quickly disseminated? What has experience shown us about the threat that these beetles actually present?

Wisconsin Badger Bee, (1999) Small hive beetle, Wisconsin Badger Bee 1-2.


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